cal, changes in the structure of the neuro


al functional neuron modifications, capable of restitution through normal metabolism. By Psychopathies I designate pathological phenomena of psychophys

n. The pathology of neuropathic diseases, (proba


iological dissociation and disaggregation of neuron systems and their functions in clusters, the neuron itself and its special function remaining undamage

bly of the cytoplasm) is essentially chemi


d. The psychopathies are further subdivided into[64] Somatopsychoses and Psychoneuroses or Neuropsychoses. The Somatopsychoses are characterized by


somatic symptoms, by disturbances of bodily functions, such as paralysis, contractures, convulsions, anesthesia, analgesia, hyperalgesia, and other sensory disturbances, as well as by intestinal, cardiac, respiratory, and genito-urinary troubles. The psychoneuroses or Neuropsychoses are characterized by mental symptoms. The patient’s whole mind is occupied with mental troubles. Such conditions are found in obsessions, fixed ideas, imperative impulses,

r inorgani



emotional compulsions, and other allied mental and nervous maladies. Somatopsychoses simulate physical and organic nervous troubles. Thus, many “hysterical” forms simulate tabes, or paralysis agit

Lorem Ipsum

ans, hemiplegia, p

araplegia, or epilepsy, while many of the neurasthenic, hypochondriacal, and their allied states may simulate tumor, cancer, intestinal and glandular derangements, cardiac, laryngeal, pneumonic, hepatic, splanchnic ovarian, tubal, uterine, renal, and other bodily afflictions. The neuropsychoses or

conomy of
Contrary to popular

psychoneuroses sim

ulate all forms of mental disease, beginning with melancholia and mania, and ending with general paresis and dementia. Psychoneurosis and somatopsychosis are diseases[65] of the subconscious; in the former mental, in the latter physical symptoms predominate. Psychopathic states should be rigidly

ional stat
It was popularised

differentiated fr

om other disturbances, such as neuropathies and organopathies, or necropathies. The following diagram may be of help: Nervous and Mental Diseases DIAGRAM I CHAPTER VIII FEAR AND THE HYPNOIDAL STATE In my work on “Sleep” I report a series of interesting experiments carried out by me on guinea pi

acteric pe

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gs, rabbits, cats, dogs, children, and adults.[4] I discovered one of the most important states of animal life, a state which I termed hypnoidal. The study shows that in almost every animal, from the

hest, from frog to man, a somewhat sudden change of the usual environment deprives that animal of its activities and its functions. If the change is not too intense and prolonged, the animal merges into the hypnoidal state

functions are restored. During this hypnoidal state the functions are weakened, the animal may be regarded in a state of invalidism, its reactions being enfeebled, practically speaking, paretic. Perhaps it is advisable

henomena from their more striking aspect. In seizing a triton, salamander, or frog, and stretching it on the table, one will observe with surprise that the[67] animal remains in the same position given it. The most uncomfo

position may be given to the limbs, and still the animal will not move. Testing the extremities one finds them rigid and resisting. Something similar we find in the hypnotic condition, when under the suggestion that the e

But I must explain to you how all this mistaken idea

xtremities are rigid, and they cannot be moved by the subject. The same can be done with a lobster and other animals of the same type. Everyone has heard of the experimentum mirabile made by Kirchner in the seventeenth century. A rooster o

self may remain un

r hen is seized, the legs are tied with a string and the bird is put on the ground. A piece of chalk is passed over the beak,—the chalk tracing a line from beak to some distant point on the ground. When the bird is released, it remains in the sa

affected, may be p

me position. Some explain that the animal is kept prisoner, because it “imagines” that it is bound by the line of chalk. The chalk, however, is unnecessary. The animal may be seized, shouted in its ear, or kept down forcibly, and the same r

erfectly normal an


esult will happe

n. This state has

been termed by Preyer



The phenomenon

can also be produced in insects, in mollusca. Many investigator

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